Jackson库中objectMapper的用法

 更新时间:2021年6月20日 00:00  
这篇文章主要介绍了Jackson库中objectMapper的用法,具有很好的参考价值,希望对大家有所帮助。如有错误或未考虑完全的地方,望不吝赐教

Jackson库中objectMapper用法

ObjectMapper类是Jackson库的主要类。它提供一些功能将转换成Java对象与SON结构互相转换,在项目中遇到过,故记录一下。

在 pom.xml 加入依赖

<dependency>
     <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
     <artifactId>jackson-databind</artifactId>
     <version>2.8.3</version>
 </dependency>

创建一个实体类RiemannUser:

package com.test.objectMapper;
import java.io.Serializable;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.List;
/**
 * @author riemann
 * @date 2019/05/27 22:48
 */
public class RiemannUser implements Serializable {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
    private int id;
    private String message;
    private Date sendDate;
    private String nodeName;
    private List<Integer> intList;
    public RiemannUser() {
        super();
    }
    public RiemannUser(int id, String message, Date sendDate) {
        super();
        this.id = id;
        this.message = message;
        this.sendDate = sendDate;
    }
    public static long getSerialVersionUID() {
        return serialVersionUID;
    }
    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }
    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }
    public String getMessage() {
        return message;
    }
    public void setMessage(String message) {
        this.message = message;
    }
    public Date getSendDate() {
        return sendDate;
    }
    public void setSendDate(Date sendDate) {
        this.sendDate = sendDate;
    }
    public String getNodeName() {
        return nodeName;
    }
    public void setNodeName(String nodeName) {
        this.nodeName = nodeName;
    }
    public List<Integer> getIntList() {
        return intList;
    }
    public void setIntList(List<Integer> intList) {
        this.intList = intList;
    }
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "RiemannUser{" + "id=" + id + ", message='" + message + '\'' + ", sendDate=" + sendDate + ", nodeName='" + nodeName + '\'' + ", intList=" + intList + '}';
    }
}

先创建一个ObjectMapper,然后赋值一些属性:

public static ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper();
static {
    // 转换为格式化的json
    mapper.enable(SerializationFeature.INDENT_OUTPUT);
    // 如果json中有新增的字段并且是实体类类中不存在的,不报错
    mapper.configure(DeserializationFeature.FAIL_ON_UNKNOWN_PROPERTIES, false);
}

1、对象与json字符串、byte数组

@Test
public void testObject() throws JsonGenerationException, JsonMappingException, IOException {
    RiemannUser riemann = new RiemannUser(1,"Hello World", new Date());
    mapper.writeValue(new File("D:/test.txt"), riemann);//写到文件中
    //mapper.writeValue(System.out, riemann); //写到控制台
    String jsonStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(riemann);
    System.out.println("对象转json字符串: " + jsonStr);
    byte[] byteArr = mapper.writeValueAsBytes(riemann);
    System.out.println("对象转为byte数组:" + byteArr);
    RiemannUser riemannUser = mapper.readValue(jsonStr, RiemannUser.class);
    System.out.println("json字符串转为对象:" + riemannUser);
    RiemannUser riemannUser2 = mapper.readValue(byteArr, RiemannUser.class);
    System.out.println("byte数组转为对象:" + riemannUser2);
}

运行结果:

对象转json字符串: {
"id" : 1,
"message" : "Hello World",
"sendDate" : 1558971056693,
"nodeName" : null,
"intList" : null
}
对象转为byte数组:[[email protected]
json字符串转为对象:RiemannUser{id=1, message='Hello World', sendDate=Mon May 27 23:30:56 CST 2019, nodeName='null', intList=null}
byte数组转为对象:RiemannUser{id=1, message='Hello World', sendDate=Mon May 27 23:30:56 CST 2019, nodeName='null', intList=null}

2、list集合与json字符串

@Test
public void testList() throws JsonGenerationException, JsonMappingException, IOException {
    List<RiemannUser> riemannList = new ArrayList<>();
    riemannList.add(new RiemannUser(1,"a",new Date()));
    riemannList.add(new RiemannUser(2,"b",new Date()));
    riemannList.add(new RiemannUser(3,"c",new Date()));
    String jsonStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(riemannList);
    System.out.println("集合转为字符串:" + jsonStr);
    List<RiemannUser> riemannLists = mapper.readValue(jsonStr, List.class);
    System.out.println("字符串转集合:" + riemannLists);
}

运行结果:

集合转为字符串:[ {
"id" : 1,
"message" : "a",
"sendDate" : 1558971833351,
"nodeName" : null,
"intList" : null
}, {
"id" : 2,
"message" : "b",
"sendDate" : 1558971833351,
"nodeName" : null,
"intList" : null
}, {
"id" : 3,
"message" : "c",
"sendDate" : 1558971833351,
"nodeName" : null,
"intList" : null
} ]
字符串转集合:[{id=1, message=a, sendDate=1558971833351, nodeName=null, intList=null}, {id=2, message=b, sendDate=1558971833351, nodeName=null, intList=null}, {id=3, message=c, sendDate=1558971833351, nodeName=null, intList=null}]

3、map与json字符串

@Test
public void testMap() {
    Map<String, Object> testMap = new HashMap<>();
    testMap.put("name", "riemann");
    testMap.put("age", 27);
    testMap.put("date", new Date());
    testMap.put("user", new RiemannUser(1, "Hello World", new Date()));
    String jsonStr = null;
    try {
        jsonStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(testMap);
        System.out.println("Map转为字符串:" + jsonStr);
        Map<String, Object> testMapDes = null;
        try {
            testMapDes = mapper.readValue(jsonStr, Map.class);
            System.out.println("字符串转Map:" + testMapDes);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    } catch (JsonProcessingException e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
    }
}

Map转为字符串:{
"date" : 1558972169132,
"name" : "riemann",
"user" : {
"id" : 1,
"message" : "Hello World",
"sendDate" : 1558972169134,
"nodeName" : null,
"intList" : null
},
"age" : 27
}
字符串转Map:{date=1558972169132, name=riemann, user={id=1, message=Hello World, sendDate=1558972169134, nodeName=null, intList=null}, age=27}

4、修改转换时的日期格式:

@Test
public void testOther() throws IOException {
    // 修改时间格式
    mapper.setDateFormat(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"));
    RiemannUser riemannUser = new RiemannUser(1,"Hello World",new Date());
    riemannUser.setIntList(Arrays.asList(1,2,3));
    String jsonStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(riemannUser);
    System.out.println("对象转为字符串:" + jsonStr);
}

运行结果:

对象转为字符串:{
"id" : 1,
"message" : "Hello World",
"sendDate" : "2019-05-27 23:53:55",
"nodeName" : null,
"intList" : [ 1, 2, 3 ]
}

objectMapper的一些坑

相信做过Java 开发对这个类应该不陌生,没错,这个类是jackson提供的,主要是用来把对象转换成为一个json字符串返回到前端,

现在大部分数据交换都是以json来传输的,所以这个很重要,那你到底又对这个类有着有多少了解呢,下面我说一下我遇到的一些坑

首先,先把我要说的几个坑需要设置的属性贴出来先

ObjectMapper objectMapper = new ObjectMapper();		
		//序列化的时候序列对象的所有属性
		objectMapper.setSerializationInclusion(Include.ALWAYS);
		
		//反序列化的时候如果多了其他属性,不抛出异常
		objectMapper.configure(DeserializationFeature.FAIL_ON_UNKNOWN_PROPERTIES, false);
		
		//如果是空对象的时候,不抛异常
		objectMapper.configure(SerializationFeature.FAIL_ON_EMPTY_BEANS, false);
		
		//取消时间的转化格式,默认是时间戳,可以取消,同时需要设置要表现的时间格式
		objectMapper.configure(SerializationFeature.WRITE_DATES_AS_TIMESTAMPS, false);
		objectMapper.setDateFormat(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"))

简单说一下这个类的基本用法,以下采用代码块加截图的形式来说明和部分文字件数

package com.shiro.test; 
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.Date; 
import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonInclude.Include;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.DeserializationFeature;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.SerializationFeature; 
public class Main2 {
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{
		ObjectMapper objectMapper = new ObjectMapper();
		//序列化的时候序列对象的所有属性
		objectMapper.setSerializationInclusion(Include.ALWAYS);
		//取消时间的转化格式,默认是时间戳,可以取消,同时需要设置要表现的时间格式
		objectMapper.configure(SerializationFeature.WRITE_DATES_AS_TIMESTAMPS, false);
		objectMapper.setDateFormat(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"));
		
		Person person = new Person(1, "zxc", new Date());
		//这是最简单的一个例子,把一个对象转换为json字符串
		String personJson = objectMapper.writeValueAsString(person);
		System.out.println(personJson);
		
		//默认为true,会显示时间戳
		objectMapper.configure(SerializationFeature.WRITE_DATES_AS_TIMESTAMPS, true);
		personJson = objectMapper.writeValueAsString(person);
		System.out.println(personJson);
	}
}

输出的信息如下

objectMapper.configure(SerializationFeature.FAIL_ON_EMPTY_BEANS, false)的作用

package com.shiro.test; 
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.Date; 
import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonInclude.Include;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.DeserializationFeature;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.SerializationFeature; 
public class Main2 {
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{
		ObjectMapper objectMapper = new ObjectMapper();
		//序列化的时候序列对象的所有属性
		objectMapper.setSerializationInclusion(Include.ALWAYS);
		//如果是空对象的时候,不抛异常,也就是对应的属性没有get方法
		objectMapper.configure(SerializationFeature.FAIL_ON_EMPTY_BEANS, false);
		
		Person person = new Person(1, "zxc", new Date());
 
		String personJson = objectMapper.writeValueAsString(person);
		System.out.println(personJson);
		
		//默认是true,即会抛异常
		objectMapper.configure(SerializationFeature.FAIL_ON_EMPTY_BEANS, true);
		personJson = objectMapper.writeValueAsString(person);
		System.out.println(personJson);
	}
}

对应的person类此时为

package com.shiro.test; 
import java.util.Date; 
public class Person { 
	private Integer id;
	private String name;
	private Date birthDate;
//	public Integer getId() {
//		return id;
//	}
//	public void setId(Integer id) {
//		this.id = id;
//	}
//	public String getName() {
//		return name;
//	}
//	public void setName(String name) {
//		this.name = name;
//	}
//	public Date getBirthDate() {
//		return birthDate;
//	}
//	public void setBirthDate(Date birthDate) {
//		this.birthDate = birthDate;
//	}
	@Override
	public String toString() {
		return "Person [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birthDate=" + birthDate + "]";
	}
	public Person(Integer id, String name, Date birthDate) {
		super();
		this.id = id;
		this.name = name;
		this.birthDate = birthDate;
	}
	
	public Person() {
		// TODO Auto-generated constructor stub
	}
}

结果如下

package com.shiro.test; 
import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonInclude.Include;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.DeserializationFeature;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper; 
public class Main2 {
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{
		ObjectMapper objectMapper = new ObjectMapper();
		//序列化的时候序列对象的所有属性
		objectMapper.setSerializationInclusion(Include.ALWAYS);
		//反序列化的时候如果多了其他属性,不抛出异常
		objectMapper.configure(DeserializationFeature.FAIL_ON_UNKNOWN_PROPERTIES, false);
		
//		Person person = new Person(1, "zxc", new Date());
 
//		String personJson = objectMapper.writeValueAsString(person);
//		System.out.println(personJson);
		
		//注意,age属性是不存在在person对象中的
		String personStr = "{\"id\":1,\"name\":\"zxc\",\"age\":\"zxc\"}";
		
		Person person = objectMapper.readValue(personStr, Person.class);
		System.out.println(person);
		
		//默认为true
		objectMapper.configure(DeserializationFeature.FAIL_ON_UNKNOWN_PROPERTIES, true);
		person = objectMapper.readValue(personStr, Person.class);
		System.out.println(person);		
	}
}

执行后的结果如下

这些便是这几个属性的作用所以,由于第一个比较简单我就这样说一下吧

Include.ALWAYS 是序列化对像所有属性

Include.NON_NULL 只有不为null的字段才被序列化

Include.NON_EMPTY 如果为null或者 空字符串和空集合都不会被序列化

然后再说一下如何把一个对象集合转换为一个 Java里面的数组

package com.shiro.test; 
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.List; 
import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonInclude.Include;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.type.TypeReference;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.JavaType;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;
 
public class Main2 {
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{
		ObjectMapper objectMapper = new ObjectMapper();
		//序列化的时候序列对象的所有属性
		objectMapper.setSerializationInclusion(Include.NON_DEFAULT);
		
		Person person1 = new Person(1, "zxc", new Date());
		Person person2 = new Person(2, "ldh", new Date());
		
		List<Person> persons = new ArrayList<>();
		persons.add(person1);
		persons.add(person2);
		
		//先转换为json字符串
		String personStr = objectMapper.writeValueAsString(persons);
		
		//反序列化为List<user> 集合,1需要通过 TypeReference 来具体传递值
		List<Person> persons2 = objectMapper.readValue(personStr, new TypeReference<List<Person>>() {});
		
		for(Person person : persons2) {
			System.out.println(person);
		}
		
		//2,通过 JavaType 来进行处理返回
		JavaType javaType = objectMapper.getTypeFactory().constructParametricType(List.class, Person.class);
		List<Person> persons3 = objectMapper.readValue(personStr, javaType);
		
		for(Person person : persons3) {
			System.out.println(person);
		}
	}
}

以上为个人经验,希望能给大家一个参考,也希望大家多多支持猪先飞。

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